# Thermal comfort

There are several indicies for evaluating the thermal comfort:

# Math modeling in microclimate control

The internal power of the human body can be determined depending on the ambient temperature

# Modern microclimate control

Safe and comfortable microclimate in living and working premisses is crucially important for human health and mental ability. Optimal performance at work and proper rest at home is not possible without clean air of comfort temperature and humidity.

# Air Quality regulator

The study of air quality in the ship’s living cabin had been carried out. For the purpose of the study the Air Quality Regulator was designed and created. This device primary features are measuring and adjusting the parameters of air quality in the living premises by the following criteria: total quality in CO2 equivalent units, carbon dioxide content and hydrocarbon content.

# Air Quality and transport

The problem of Air Quality and transport is complex and can be viewed from two perspectives:

# Air Quality on board ships

The development of the modern Maritime industry requires continuous improvement of the

# Particulate Matter

All particles of solid and liquid substances which contained in the air form Particulate Matter (PM). Examples of PM are soot and smoke from engine or boiler exhausts, dust, volatile moisture, pollen etc.

# Sulfur Dioxide

Similarly to $NO_x$, Sulfur Oxide ( $SO$ ) and Sulfur Dioxide ( $SO_2$ ) are known as ( $SO_x$ ). Both $SO$ and $SO_2$ mostly come from burning hydrocarbon fuels which contaminated with Sulfur. Sulfur mostly can be found in coal, residual and diesel fuels. International regulations limit $SO_x$ emissions by limiting the Sulfur content in fuels and by installing scrubbers on the high power industrial and marine engines and boiler.

# Nitrogen Dioxide

Nitrogen Oxide ( $NO$ ) and Nitrogen Dioxide ( $NO_2$ ) are often referred as ( $NO_x$ ). The most widely spread source of $NO_x$ pollution are internal combustion engines. NOx generation in engines is mostly influenced by the combustions temperature and duration of the gas being at high temperature. Greater the combustion temperature and duration - greater the NOx generation. Engine makers are obligated to implement $NO_x$ reduction design. In order to minimize $NO_x$ emission and other pollutants emission, it is important to keep engine tuned up to makers standards and use original parts for replacement during repairs and overhauls.

# Carbon oxide

Carbon Monoxide ( $CO$ ) is extremely dangerous substance to human health and life. It originates from the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbon fuels and some chemical reactions. No $CO$ should be detected in inhabited premisses at any time. Trapped in the blood flow, Carbon Monoxide reacts with blood hemoglobin. Hemoglobin which combined with $CO$ is unable to react with oxygen and transport it to the body cells.

Carbon Dioxide is not actually taken seriously as a pollutant. Everyone nowadays aware of Green House Effect, but very few people have understanding what does it mean. During thousands of years Carbon Dioxide content was fluctuating around 300 ppm due to natural causes. In 1950s the influence of the mankind power consumption on the atmosphere became a significant factor of climate change. The concentration of ambient $CO_2$ started to rise, caused by booming industry and transport emissions. Current concentration of Carbon Dioxide in the ambient air is 413 ppm and rising. Check CO2.earth for the trend, it’s pretty scary. Humans cant distinguish with their fillings between ambient $CO_2$ concentration from let’s say 1000 ppm. However, concentrations above 2000 ppm, which often can be experienced in premisses with poor ventilation, may reduce the mental and perception abilities despite still cant be notice be human . Drowsiness and headaches start from 10000 ppm - 12000 ppm. Breathing difficulties begin when Carbon Dioxide concentration reaches 20000 ppm (2%) $CO_2$ concentration of 30000 ppm (3%) doubles the breath rate.