Sulfur Dioxide

Similarly to , Sulfur Oxide ( ) and Sulfur Dioxide ( ) are known as ( ). Both and mostly come from burning hydrocarbon fuels which contaminated with Sulfur. Sulfur mostly can be found in coal, residual and diesel fuels. International regulations limit emissions by limiting the Sulfur content in fuels and by installing scrubbers on the high power industrial and marine engines and boiler.

may cause breathing problems and lung damage.

Regulatory levels

Regulations for industrial environments

  • OSHA:
    • 5 ppm - highest average concentration for any 8-hours period
  • MAK
    • 0.5 ppm - highest average concentration for any 8-hours period
    • 1 ppm - highest average concentration for any 8-hours period, never to be exceeded

Outdoor air regulatory levels

  • U.S. EPA
    • 75 ppb (196 ) - highest average concentration for any 1-hours period, not to be exceeded
    • 0.5 ppm (1300 ) - highest average concentration for any 3-hours period, not to be exceeded
    • 0.14 ppm - highest average concentration for any 24-hours period, not to be exceeded more than once a year
    • 0.03 ppm - highest average concentration for any 1-year period
  • California
    • 0.25 ppm (655 ) - highest average concentration for any 1-hours period, not to be exceeded
    • 0.04 ppm (105 ) - highest average concentration for any 24-hours period, not to be exceeded
  • Japan
    • 0.04 ppm - highest average concentration for any 24-hours period
    • 0.1 ppm - highest average concentration for any 1-hours period

Reference levels

Reference levels for industrial environments

  • NIOSH:
    • 2 ppm - highest average concentration for any 8-hours period
    • 5 ppm - highest average concentration for any 15-mins period
  • ACGIH
    • 2 ppm - highest average concentration for any 8-hours period
    • 5 ppm - highest average concentration for any 15-mins period

General reference levels

  • ASHRAE
    • 80 - average exposure for 1 year
  • WHO:
    • 0.048 ppm - highest average concentration for any 24-hours period
    • 0.012 ppm - highest average concentration for any 1-year period

Indoor residential reference levels

  • South Korea
    • 0.05 ppm
  • Canadian regulations
    • 0.38 ppm - highest average concentration for any 5-min period
    • 0.019 ppm - highest average concentration for any 8-hours period

There are dedicated Sulfur Dioxide sensors available mostly for industrial use. Indoor Air Quality sensors are used for personal applications. Such sensors capable of sensing a wide range of pollutants. The downside of most of the air quality sensors is that they are unable to detect separate gas concentrations because they react on all pollutants at once and output cumulative reading in some air quality units. Nevertheless, it is recommended to install Air Quality Detectors in living and working premisses.